Cognitive Development is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology, which focusing on the development of the child in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning and other aspects of brain development.
In other words, cognitive development is the development of the ability to think and the ability to understand.
It is also known as mental development as well as intellectual development.
Schema, Adaptation, Assimilation, Accommodation, Equilibration:-
Some most important terms related to the Cognitive Development are Schema, Adaptation, Assimilation, Accommodation and Equilibration.
Schema: – We respond to our environment by building cognitive structures. According to Piajet’s, knowledge develops through a cognitive structure known as schema. Schemas are mental representations of the world that help us to make our sense meaningful and understand our world. According to piajet, it is the main ingredient of knowledge. A child’s schema develops as a result of his/her interactions with the environment and the world.
Adaptation: – Every child is born with a certain amount of schema, such as schema for sucking, schema for reaching, schema for gripping, etc. These are turn modified as a result of experience. According to Piajet,s, this process of modification is called adaptation.
There are two types of adaptations. They are Assimilation and Accommodation.
Assimilation: – It is a process of adaptation. This happens when new phenomena such as objects, experiences, ideas, situations, etc. may be included into the existing schema that the child already knows or understands from the world.
Or, it is part of the adaptation process through which people receive new information and incorporate that information into existing schemas.
Accommodation: – Accommodation is the creation of new knowledge. This process occurs when a new phenomenon does not fit into the existing schema in children and humans. In this case, to replace the new event, either one previous schema has to be changed, or, a new schema has to be created.
Equilibration: – According to Piaget’s believe, all children try to maintain a balance between assimilation and accommodation through a special method, called equilibrium. Equilibrium helps to explain how children can move from one stage of thought to the next stage.
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